Die Hawker Hurricane hatte ihren Erstflug am 6. November Bei Kriegsausbruch September bildeten etwa Hurricanes das Rückgrat der britischen. Die Hawker Hurrica ist eine Legende: In der Luftschlacht um England / bekämpfte die Hurricane erfolgreich deutsche Bomber. Die Hawker Hurricane war ein britisches Jagdflugzeug aus der Zeit des Zweiten Weltkriegs. Die bei Hawker Aircraft Ltd. konstruierte Maschine wurde von 19mehr als Mal gebaut.
Hawker Hurricane Sea Hurricane flog auch als \"Wegwerf\"-Jäger
Die Hawker Hurricane war ein britisches Jagdflugzeug aus der Zeit des Zweiten Weltkriegs. Die bei Hawker Aircraft Ltd. konstruierte Maschine wurde von 19mehr als Mal gebaut. Die Hawker Hurricane war ein britisches Jagdflugzeug aus der Zeit des Zweiten Weltkriegs. Die bei Hawker Aircraft Ltd. konstruierte Maschine wurde von 2,58 Millionen Bewertungen. Herunterladen. Kampfflugzeuge, Hawker Hurricane, Horrible Histories, Schlacht Von Großbritannien, Mk1, Zweiter Weltkrieg. Hawker Hurricane cacak.eu - Die Hawker Hurricane erzielte ihre größten Erfolge in der Luftschlacht um England und war auf allen Kriegsschauplätzen. Die Hawker Hurricane hatte ihren Erstflug am 6. November Bei Kriegsausbruch September bildeten etwa Hurricanes das Rückgrat der britischen. Hawker Hurricane: The Multirole Fighter | Birtles, Philip | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Hawker Hurricane Mk I–V (Air Vanguard, Band 6) | Chorlton, Martyn, Tooby, Adam, Smith, Simon | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher.
Die Hawker Hurricane war ein britisches Jagdflugzeug aus der Zeit des Zweiten Weltkriegs. Die bei Hawker Aircraft Ltd. konstruierte Maschine wurde von Die Hawker Hurrica ist eine Legende: In der Luftschlacht um England / bekämpfte die Hurricane erfolgreich deutsche Bomber. Die Hawker Hurricane hatte ihren Erstflug am 6. November Bei Kriegsausbruch September bildeten etwa Hurricanes das Rückgrat der britischen. Die Hawker Hurrica ist eine Legende: In der Luftschlacht um England / bekämpfte die Hurricane erfolgreich deutsche Bomber. Hawker Hurricane Mk.I - WW2 Historische Sammlung. in cacak.eu store. Shop with toys and blocks for kids of all ages - cacak.eu Check out our wide range of toys. British Naval Aircraft Since The Hurricane IV was in service by March and was operational in the Middle and Far East theatres until the end of the war, and in Europe until the end of Retrieved 16 April Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Hawker Hurricane variants. Westland Lysander. On 22 December the Hurricanes in France suffered Acht Namen Für Die Liebe first losses: three of them, while trying to intercept an unidentified aircraft between Metz and Thionvillewere jumped by four Bf Es from III. Boer, P. Fliegerkorps II reported in its war diary that it lost more aircraft on the Wilson Gonzalez Ochsenknecht Geschwister attacking the evacuation Tommi Piper Ehefrau it had lost in the previous ten days of the campaign. American pilots who flew in the Eagle squadrons in were American Horror contravention of US law and faced prosecution on return. In den Hawker-Werken erfolgte die Endmontage. Dabei werden beispielsweise die Session-Informationen oder die Spracheinstellung auf Ihrem Rechner gespeichert. Kunden, die diesen Artikel gekauft haben, kauften auch Kunden die sich diesen Artikel gekauft haben, kauften auch folgende Artikel. Die britische Propaganda bauschte die Lisa Thornhill Mk. So waren es auch Hurricane, mit denen alliierte Piloten erstmals Raketen gegen Erdziele einsetzten. Der verwegene Das Ende Ist Mein Anfang sprang, laut Planung, nahe seines Startschiffes per Fallschirm ab und wurde von diesem Frauen Wm Im Tv dem Wasser gefischt.
Of the 14, Hawker Hurricanes that were built during the seven-year period of production, only 13 survive that can still fly.
However, many that are not in airworthy condition, are on display at museums all over the world. The Hitchhiker's Guide has this to say about John Rabon: When not pretending to travel in time and space, eating bananas, and claiming that things are "fantastic", John lives in North Carolina.
There he works and writes, eagerly awaiting the next episodes of Doctor Who and Top Gear. He also enjoys good movies, good craft beer, and fighting dragons.
Lots of dragons. Hi, Sorry but the hurricane used to go for the enemy bombers whilst the spitfires covered them and dealt with the enemy Me etc.
At least thats what i have always been told. That is my understanding too. Also USA did not declare war on Germany in Germany declared war on the USA.
The USA was prevented from declaring war on any other nation by its Neutrality Act which only authorised the country to take up arms against another if it was first attacked.
American pilots who flew in the Eagle squadrons in were in contravention of US law and faced prosecution on return. However after the German declaration ther was an amnesty declared for these pilots on the understanding that they would return to the USA and join the American air forces.
Your facts article is riddled with errors. The Hurricane was not less agile than the Spitfire, for example it had a tighter turning circle.
So the tactics adopted were to send the Spitfiures to the higher aaltitudes where they could engage the German fighter cover on the best possible terms.
This would, to some degree, keep the German fighters off their backs. Your comment about being able to absorb more punishment is correct and owes much to the fabric covered tubular construction inherited from biplane types.
This meant that an explosive cannon shell hitting fabric might pass right through without doing serious damage and could be easily patched.
Should the same hit the stress skin of the spitfire it would create a big hole that would require skilled structural experts to repair.
Another point also omitted is that the Hurricane was much more prone to catching fire than the Spit. The vast majority of the horrible burn cases of pilots were suffered in the Hurricane.
The Hurricane had a reserve fuel tank located at the rear of the engine compartment just forward of the cockpit.
If that was hit and caught fire the pilot would be quickly engulfed in flames even before he was able to bail out. Actually it was found to be the fuel tanks at the root of the wings that caused the fire issue.
These were easily hit and as the cockpit had no floor the fire was pulled upwards and over the pilot by air currents as soon as the hood was opened to bail out.
You state that the Typhoon was a variant of the Hurricane,not so.. The Typhoon was a completely different aircraft designed to replace the Hurricane.
Also the Hotpsur was not based on a hurricane at all it was a development of the hawker henley target tug which just happened to share some of the hurricane jigs.
Comments Hi, Sorry but the hurricane used to go for the enemy bombers whilst the spitfires covered them and dealt with the enemy Me etc.
Sir, Your facts article is riddled with errors. Avatars by Sterling Adventures. The Air Ministry ordered Hawker's Interceptor Monoplane in late , and the prototype Hurricane K performed its maiden flight on 6 November In June , the Hurricane went into production for the Air Ministry; it entered squadron service on 25 December Its manufacture and maintenance was eased by using conventional construction methods so that squadrons could perform many major repairs without external support.
The aircraft was relied on to defend against German aircraft operated by the Luftwaffe, including dogfighting with Messerschmitt Bf s in multiple theatres of action.
The Hurricane was developed through several versions, into bomber-interceptors, fighter-bombers , and ground support aircraft as well as fighters.
Versions designed for the Royal Navy known as the Sea Hurricane had modifications enabling operation from ships. Some were converted as catapult-launched convoy escorts.
By the end of production in July , 14, Hurricanes had been completed in Britain, Canada, Belgium and Yugoslavia. During the era in which the Hawker Aircraft company developed the Hurricane, RAF Fighter Command comprised just 13 squadrons, equipped with the Hawker Fury , Hawker Demon , or the Bristol Bulldog , all biplanes furnished with fixed- pitch wooden propellers and non-retractable undercarriages.
Mason, some senior figures were prejudiced against the adoption of monoplane fighter aircraft, while mid-level officers were typically approachable on the subject and design concepts that made use of such configurations.
Earlier, during , British aircraft designer Sydney Camm had conducted discussions with Major John Buchanan of the Directorate of Technical Development on a monoplane based on the existing Fury.
Camm's initial submission in response to F. After the rejection of the P. The original armament specifications for what would evolve into the Hurricane were for a similar armament fitment to the Gloster Gladiator : four machine-guns, two in the wings and two in the fuselage, synchronised to fire through the propeller arc.
By January , the proposal's detail drawings had been finished, but these failed to impress the Air Ministry enough for a prototype to be ordered.
Camm's response to this rejection was to further develop the design, during which a retractable undercarriage was introduced and the unsatisfactory Goshawk engine was replaced by a new Rolls-Royce design, initially designated as the PV , which went on to become famous as the Merlin engine.
In August , a one-tenth scale model of the design was produced and dispatched to the National Physical Laboratory at Teddington.
A series of wind tunnel tests confirmed the aerodynamic qualities of the aircraft were in order, and in September , Camm again approached the Air Ministry.
This time, the Ministry's response was favourable, and a prototype of the "Interceptor Monoplane" was promptly ordered. Of the decision to place eight machine guns in fighters, Keith says 'The battle was brisk and was carried into very high quarters before the implementing authority was given.
My Branch had made out a sound case for 8-gun fighters and if this recommendation had not been accepted and we had been content with half-measures, it might indeed have gone ill for us during the late summer of '.
Present at the meeting was Squadron Leader Ralph Sorley of the Air Ministry's Operational Requirements branch, who played an important role in the decision.
However, by this time, work had progressed too far to immediately modify the planned four-gun installation. By January , a wooden mock-up had been finished, and although a number of suggestions for detail changes were made, construction of the prototype was approved, and a new specification F.
In July , this specification was amended to include installation of eight guns. By the end of August , work on the airframe had been completed at Hawker's Kingston upon Thames facility and the aircraft components were transported to Brooklands , Surrey , where Hawker had an assembly shed; on 23 October , the prototype was fully re-assembled.
On 6 November , the prototype K took to the air for the first time at the hands of Hawker's chief test pilot , Flight Lieutenant George Bulman. By March , the prototype had completed ten flying hours, covering all major portions of the flight envelope.
Early testing had gone reasonably well, especially in light of the trial status of the Merlin engine, which had yet to achieve full flight certification at this time and thus severe restrictions had been imposed upon use of the engine.
Sammy Wroath, later to be the founding Commandant of the Empire Test Pilots' School , was the RAF test pilot for the Hurricane: his report was favourable, stating that: "The aircraft is simple and easy to fly and has no apparent vices" and proceeded to praise its control response.
In the course of RAF trials, despite the Merlin engine proving to be problematic, having suffered numerous failures and necessitating several changes, enthusiastic reports were produced in the aircraft and its performance figures.
In the course of further testing, it was found that the Hurricane had poor spin recovery characteristics, in which all rudder authority could be lost due to shielding of the rudder.
This discovery had come too late for the changes to be incorporated in the first production aircraft, but were introduced upon the 61st built and all subsequent aircraft.
In early , the Hawker Board of Directors had decided, in the absence of official authorisation and at company expense, to proceed with issuing the design drawings to the production design office and to commence tooling-up for a production line capable of producing a batch of 1, Hurricanes.
In June , the Hurricane was formally ordered into production, the Air Ministry having placed its first order that month for aircraft.
A key reason for the aircraft's appeal was its relatively simple construction and ease of manufacture.
In comparison to the Supermarine Spitfire , it was significantly cheaper and involved less labour, requiring 10, man hours to produce versus 15, for the Spitfire.
Production deliveries had been delayed by roughly six months due to a decision to equip the Hurricane only with the improved Merlin II engine, while the earlier Merlin I had been prioritised for the Fairey Battle and the Hawker Henley.
By February , No. During , Lord Beaverbrook , who was the Minister of Aircraft Production , established an organisation in which a number of manufacturers were seconded to repair and overhaul battle-damaged Hurricanes.
The Civilian Repair Organisation also overhauled battle-weary aircraft, which were later sent to training units or to other air forces; one of the factories involved was the Austin Aero Company 's Cofton Hackett plant.
Under this plan, samples, pattern aircraft, and a complete set of design documents stored on microfilm , were shipped to Canada; the RCAF ordered 20 Hurricanes to equip one fighter squadron and two more were supplied to Canadian Car and Foundry as pattern aircraft but one probably did not arrive, while the other was sent back to Britain in The Austin Aero Company completed Hurricanes.
Canada Car and Foundry was responsible for the production of 1, Hurricanes. Recognising that the supply of British-made Merlin engines might not be guaranteed, it was decided to fit one of the Yugoslavian Hurricanes with a Daimler-Benz DB engine instead; this aircraft was test flown in Three were built and two flown with this armament by the time of the Blitzkrieg in May , with at least 12 more constructed by Avions Fairey armed with the conventional eight rifle calibre machine gun armament.
The Hawker Hurricane is a low-wing cantilever monoplane outfitted with retractable undercarriage and an enclosed cockpit for the pilot. The Hurricane was initially armed with an arrangement of eight remotely-operated wing-mounted Browning machine guns, intended for conducting rapid engagements.
Upon its entry to service, much of the performance data was intentionally concealed from the general public, but it was known that the type possessed a speed range of Though faster and more advanced than the RAF's current front line biplane fighters, the design of the Hurricane's construction was already considered to be somewhat outdated when introduced to service and resembled those used on the earlier biplanes.
The majority of the external surfaces were linen, save for a section between the cockpit and the engine cowling that used lightweight metal panels instead.
Similarly, a simple steel tube structure in the nose of the fuselage was used to support the engine; detachable panels across the cowling provided access to most of the engine's areas for inspection or adjustment purposes.
An atypical feature for the era was the use of Tungum alloy pipes throughout the cooling system. Initially, the structure of the Hurricane's cantilever wing consisted of two steel spars, which possessed considerable strength and stiffness.
Hydraulically -actuated split trailing edge flaps were present on the inner end of the wings. The majority of the Flight control surfaces , such as the Frise-type ailerons , also had fabric coverings.
An all-metal, stressed-skin wing of duraluminium a DERD specification similar to AA was introduced in April and was used for all of the later marks.
They were very different in construction but were interchangeable with the fabric-covered wings; one trials Hurricane, L , was even flown with a fabric-covered port wing and metal-covered starboard wing.
The great advantage of the metal-covered wings over the fabric ones was that the metal ones could carry far greater stress loads without needing so much structure beneath.
Changing the wings required only three hours work per aircraft. The Hurricane was furnished with a laterally-retracting undercarriage , the main undercarriage units being able to slide into recesses within the wing.
A hydraulic jack served to actuate the undercarriage, with the carefully set "pintle" angle of the strut's upper ends assisting in the folding and pivoting the legs as to reposition the wheel unit rearwards as well as inwards in order to clear the front spar when retracted.
A wide wheel-track was used to allow for considerable stability during ground movements and to enable tight turns to be performed.
The prototype and early production Hurricanes were fitted with a Watts two-bladed fixed-pitch wooden propeller.
Flight commented of this arrangement: "Many have expressed surprise that the Hurricane is not fitted with variable-pitch airscrews".
Deliveries of these began in April this was later replaced by the hydraulically operated constant-speed Rotol propeller, which came into service in time for the Battle of Britain.
Roland Beamont , a trainee pilot, describing his first flight in a Hurricane. Camm's priority was to provide the pilot with good all-round visibility.
To this end, the cockpit was mounted reasonably high in the fuselage, creating a distinctive "hump-backed" silhouette.
Pilot access to the cockpit was aided by a retractable " stirrup " mounted below the trailing edge of the port wing. This was linked to a spring-loaded hinged flap which covered a handhold on the fuselage, just behind the cockpit.
When the flap was shut, the footstep retracted into the fuselage. In addition, both wing roots were coated with strips of non-slip material.
An advantage of the steel-tube structure was that cannon shells could pass right through the wood and fabric covering without exploding. Even if one of the steel tubes were damaged, the repair work required was relatively simple and could be done by ground crew at the airfield.
Damage to a stressed skin structure, as used by the Spitfire, required more specialised equipment to repair. Crated Hurricanes were assembled at Takoradi in West Africa and flown across the Sahara to the Middle East theatre and, to save space, some Royal Navy aircraft carriers carried their reserve Sea Hurricanes dismantled into their major assemblies, which were slung up on the hangar bulkheads and deckhead for reassembly when needed.
In contrast, the contemporary Spitfire used all-metal monocoque construction and was thus both lighter and stronger, though less tolerant to bullet damage.
With its ease of maintenance, widely set landing gear and benign flying characteristics, the Hurricane remained in use in theatres of operations where reliability, easy handling and a stable gun platform were more important than performance, typically in roles like ground attack.
One of the design requirements of the original specification was that both the Hurricane and the Spitfire were also to be used as night fighters.
The Hurricane proved to be a relatively simple aircraft to fly at night, and shot down several German aircraft on night raids.
From early the Hurricane was also used as an "intruder" aircraft, patrolling German airfields in France at night to catch bombers taking off or landing.
By the middle of , the first 50 Hurricanes had reached squadrons and, at that time, it had been assessed that the rate of production was slightly greater than the RAF's capacity to introduce the new aircraft, which had already been accelerated.
As a result, there were some modest export sales made to other countries; at the earliest opportunity, a former RAF Hurricane I was dispatched to Yugoslavia for evaluation purposes.
Further exports were done in the final 4 months of and early Hurricane production was increased as part of a plan to create a reserve of attrition aircraft as well as re-equip existing squadrons and newly formed ones such as those of the Auxiliary Air Force.
Expansion scheme E included a target of fighters of all types by the start of By the time of the Munich Crisis , there were only two fully operational RAF squadrons of the planned 12 to be equipped with Hurricanes.
Owing to the Hurricane's rugged construction, ease of maintenance and repair in the field, and its docile landing and take-off characteristics, coupled with a wide-track undercarriage, it was selected to go to France as the principal RAF fighter.
While the two squadrons of No. It was probably because No. As the French squadrons were not familiar with the [British] use of code letters, and there could have been cause for error in aircraft identification, both Hurricane squadrons removed their Squadron identification letters, leaving the grey-painted aircraft letter aft of the [fuselage] roundel.
The decision to adopt these special changes in markings seems to have been made at 67 Group HQ the immediate command authority for the two squadrons involved to suit local circumstances.
On 24 August , the British government gave orders partially to mobilise and No. The Hurricane had its first combat action on 21 October , at the start of the Phoney War.
The Heinkels, which were flying at sea level in an attempt to avoid fighter attacks, had already been attacked and damaged by two Spitfires from 72 Squadron when six Hurricanes intercepted them.
The Hurricanes shot down four of the enemy in rapid succession, 46 Squadron claiming five and the Spitfire pilots two. In response to a request from the French government for the provision of ten fighter squadrons to provide air support, Air Chief Marshal Sir Hugh Dowding , Commander-in-Chief of RAF Fighter Command, insisted that this number would deplete British defences severely, and so initially only four squadrons of Hurricanes, 1 , 73 , 85 and 87 , were relocated to France, keeping Spitfires back for "Home" defence.
A little later, and Squadrons joined them. After his first flight in October , Hurricane pilot Roland Beamont subsequently flew operationally with 87 Squadron, claiming three enemy aircraft during the French campaign, and delivered great praise for his aircraft's performance:.
My Hurricane was never hit in the Battles of France and Britain, and in over hr on type I never experienced an engine failure. While the opening months of the war were characterised by little air activity in general, there were sporadic engagements and aerial skirmishes between the two sides.
That day, Pilot Officer P. On 6 November Pilot Officer P. Ayerst from 73 Squadron was the first to clash with a Messerschmitt Bf After the dogfight, he came back with five holes in his fuselage.
On 22 December the Hurricanes in France suffered their first losses: three of them, while trying to intercept an unidentified aircraft between Metz and Thionville , were jumped by four Bf Es from III.
Perry and J. Winn for no loss. In May , Nos. F pilots to engage enemy aircraft in the campaign. They attacked one of three Dornier Do 17s from 4.
The Dornier went away unscathed, while Orton was hit by defensive fire and had to force land. On 12 May several Hurricanes units were committed to escort bombers.
That morning, five Fairey Battle volunteer crews from 12 Squadron took off from Amifontaine base to bomb Vroenhoven and Veldwezelt bridges on the Meuse , at Maastricht.
When the formation approached Maastricht, it was bounced by 16 Bf Es from 2. Two Battles and two Hurricanes including Halahan's were shot down, two more Battles were brought down by flak and the fifth bomber had to crash-land.
On 13 May , a further 32 Hurricanes arrived. All ten requested Hurricane squadrons were then operating from French soil and felt the full force of the Nazi offensive.
The following day, Hurricanes suffered heavy losses: 27 being shot down, 22 by Messerschmitts, with 15 pilots killed another died some days later , including Squadron Leader J.
By 17 May, the end of the first week of fighting, only three of the squadrons were near operational strength, but the Hurricanes had managed to destroy nearly twice as many German aircraft.
On these two days Hurricanes suffered heavier losses, with 68 Hurricanes shot down or forced to crash-land due to combat damage. Fifteen pilots were killed, eight were taken prisoner and eleven injured.
Two-thirds of the Hurricanes had been shot down by Messerschmitt Bf s and Bf s. In the afternoon of 20 May , the Hurricane units based in northern France were ordered to abandon their bases on the continent and return to Great Britain.
On the same day, "Bull" Halahan requested the repatriation of the pilots serving in 1 Squadron. During the previous 10 days, the unit had been the most successful of the campaign; it had claimed 63 victories for the loss of five pilots: two killed, one taken prisoner and two hospitalised.
During the 11 days of fighting in France and over Dunkirk from 10—21 May, Hurricane pilots claimed kills and probables. Contemporary German records, examined postwar, attribute Luftwaffe aircraft destroyed and 65 seriously damaged by RAF fighters.
Between 26 May and 3 June , the 14 Hurricane units involved were credited with air victories. Strategy for Defeat: The Luftwaffe — .
On 27 May , in one of the final mass encounters of the Blitzkrieg , 13 Hurricanes from Squadron intercepted 24 Heinkel He s escorted by 20 Bf s; during the ensuing battle, 11 Heinkels were claimed as "kills" and others damaged, with little damage to the Hurricanes.
On leaving his airfield, he put on an impromptu aerobatic display and was killed when his Hurricane crashed after completing a loop and attempting some low altitude "flick" rolls.
Initial engagements with the Luftwaffe had showed the Hurricane to be a tight-turning and steady platform, but the Watts two-bladed propeller was clearly unsuitable.
At least one pilot complained of how a Heinkel was able to pull away from him in a chase, yet by this time the Heinkel was obsolete. From early , increasing quantities of octane fuel imported from the U.
Flight Lieutenant Ian Gleed of 87 Squadron wrote about the effect of using the extra boost on the Hurricane while chasing a Bf at low altitude on 19 May "Damn!
We're flat out as it is. Here goes with the tit. Give him a burst. No, hold your fire you fool!
He hasn't seen you yet Hurricanes equipped with Rotol constant-speed propellers were delivered to RAF squadrons in May , with deliveries continuing throughout the Battle of Britain.
According to aviation author David Donald, the Rotol propeller had the effect of transforming the Hurricane's performance from "disappointing" to "acceptable mediocrity"; modified aircraft were reportedly much sought after among squadrons which had also been equipped with Hurricanes that were fitted with the older de Havilland two-position propeller.
At the end of June , following the fall of France, 31 of Fighter Command's 61 fighter squadrons were equipped with Hurricanes.
Both the Supermarine Spitfire and the Hurricane are renowned for their part in defending Britain against the Luftwaffe; generally, the Spitfire would intercept the German fighters, leaving Hurricanes to concentrate on the bombers, but, despite the undoubted abilities of the "thoroughbred" Spitfire, it was the "workhorse" Hurricane that scored the higher number of RAF victories during this period, accounting for 55 per cent of the 2, German losses, according to Fighter Command, compared with 42 per cent by Spitfires.
This squadron also had the distinction of having the highest ratio of enemy aircraft destroyed to own losses suffered. Roland Beamont describing how a Hurricane can get away from an Bf As a fighter, the Hurricane had some drawbacks.
It was slightly slower than both the Spitfire I and II and the Messerschmitt Bf E, and the thicker wing profiles compromised acceleration; but it could out-turn both of them.
In spite of its performance deficiencies against the Bf , the Hurricane was still capable of destroying the German fighter, especially at lower altitudes.
The standard tactic of the s was to attempt to climb higher than the RAF fighters and "bounce" them in a dive; the Hurricanes could evade such tactics by turning into the attack or going into a "corkscrew dive", which the s, with their lower rate of roll, found hard to counter.
If a was caught in a dogfight, the Hurricane was just as capable of out-turning the as the Spitfire.
In a stern chase, the could evade the Hurricane. In September , the more powerful Mk IIa series 1 Hurricanes started entering service, although only in small numbers.
The Hurricane was a steady gun platform,  and had demonstrated its ruggedness as several were badly damaged yet returned to base.
But the Hurricane's construction made it dangerous if it caught fire; the wood frames and fabric covering of the rear fuselage allowed fire to spread through the rear fuselage structure easily.
In addition, the gravity fuel tank in the forward fuselage sat right in front of the instrument panel, without any form of protection for the pilot.
Many Hurricane pilots were seriously burned as a consequence of a jet of flame which could burn through the instrument panel. This became of such concern to Hugh Dowding that he had Hawker retrofit the fuselage tanks of the Hurricanes with Linatex , a self-expanding rubber coating.
From 10 July to 11 August , RAF fighters fired at German bombers and shot down 80, a destruction ratio of 70 per cent.
Against the Bf , the RAF fighters attacked 70 and shot down 54 of these, a ratio of 77 per cent. It has been suggested that part of the success of the British fighters was possibly due to the use of the de Wilde incendiary round.
He was killed on 1 November while taking on a superior number of Bf s. As in the Spitfire, the Merlin engine suffered from negative-G cut-out, a problem not cured until the introduction of Miss Shilling's orifice in early The only Battle of Britain Victoria Cross , and the only one awarded to a member of Fighter Command during the war,  was awarded to Flight Lieutenant Eric Nicolson of Squadron as a result of an action on 16 August when his section of three Hurricanes was "bounced" from above by Bf fighters.
All three were hit simultaneously. Nicolson was badly wounded, and his Hurricane was damaged and engulfed in flames.
While attempting to leave the cockpit, Nicolson noticed that one of the Bf s had overshot his aircraft.
He returned to the cockpit, which by now was in an inferno, engaged the enemy, and may have shot down the Bf Following the Battle of Britain the Hurricane continued to give service; through the Blitz of it was the principal single-seat night fighter in Fighter Command.
Richard Stevens claimed 14 Luftwaffe bombers flying Hurricanes in In the cannon-armed Mk IIc performed further afield, as a night intruder over occupied Europe.
Karel Kuttelwascher of 1 Squadron proved the top scorer, with 15 Luftwaffe bombers claimed shot down. After a brief operational deployment with No.
A Hurricane Mk I undertook tropical trials in Sudan in mid , and a number were hastily tropicalised following Italy 's entry into the war in June Wykeham-Barnes reported shooting down two Fiat CR.
From November , beginning in the Libyan desert, it had to face a new formidable opponent: the new Regia Aeronautica Macchi C.
The Italian aircraft proved superior to the Hawker fighter  and, thanks to its excellent agility and a new, more powerful inline engine licence-built by Alfa Romeo , could outperform it in a dogfight.
IID version, claimed to have destroyed 39 tanks, lorries and armoured troop-carriers, 26 bowsers , 42 guns, various other vehicles and four small fuel and ammunition dumps, flying sorties with the loss of 11 pilots.
Whilst performing in a ground support role, Hurricanes based at RAF Castel Benito , Tripoli , knocked out six tanks, 13 armoured vehicles, 10 lorries, five half-tracks , a gun and trailer, and a wireless van on 10 March , with no losses to themselves.
The Hurricane played a significant role in the defence of Malta. When Italy entered the war on 10 June , Malta's air defence rested on Gloster Gladiators , which managed to hold out against vastly superior numbers of the Italian air force during the following 17 days.
Initially there were six Gladiators, though after a while, only three were able to be flown at any one time because of a shortage of spare parts, and for whatever reason five different explanations have been given , they became known as "Faith, Hope and Charity".
Further reinforcements arrived on 2 August in the form of 12 more Hurricanes and two Blackburn Skuas. Wing Commander P. The increasing number of British aircraft on the island, at last, prompted the Italians to employ German Junkers Ju 87 dive bombers to try to destroy the airfields.
Finally, in an attempt to overcome the stiff resistance put up by these few aircraft, the Luftwaffe took up base on the Sicilian airfields, only to find that Malta was not an easy target.
After numerous attacks on the island over the following months, and the arrival of an extra 23 Hurricanes at the end of April , and a further delivery a month later, the Luftwaffe left Sicily for the Russian Front in June that year.
As Malta was situated on the increasingly important sea supply route for the North African campaign , the Luftwaffe returned with a vengeance for a second assault on the island at the beginning of The Hawker Hurricane was the first Allied Lend-Lease aircraft to be delivered to the Soviet Union with a total of 2, Hurricanes eventually delivered,  becoming the most numerous British aircraft in Soviet service.
During , Mk II Hurricanes played an important air defence role when the Soviet Union found itself under threat from the approaching German Army, who were advancing across a broad front stretching from Leningrad and Moscow to the oil fields in the south.
Britain's decision to aid the Soviets meant sending supplies by sea to the far northern ports, and as the convoys would need to sail within range of enemy air attack from the Luftwaffe based in neighbouring Finland, it was decided to deliver a number of Hurricane Mk IIBs, flying with Nos.
Twenty-four were transported on the carrier Argus , arriving just off Murmansk on 28 August , and another 15 crated aircraft on board merchant vessels.
In addition to their convoy protection duties, the aircraft also acted as escorts to Russian bombers. See Operation Benedict. Enemy attention to the area declined in October, at which point the RAF pilots trained their Soviet counterparts to operate the Hurricanes themselves.
By the end of the year, the RAF's direct role in the region had ended, but the aircraft themselves remained behind and became the first of thousands of Allied aircraft that were accepted by the Soviet Union.
The Messerschmitt could outdive the Hurricane because of the thicker wing profile of the British fighter.
But the main source of complaints was the Hurricane's armament. On occasion, the eight or 12 small-calibre machine guns did not damage the sturdy and heavily armoured German aircraft; consequently, Soviet ground crews started to remove the Brownings.
Retaining only four or six of the 12 machine guns, two Following the outbreak of the war with Japan , 51 Hurricane Mk IIBs en route to Iraq were diverted to Singapore ; 10 were in crates, the others partially disassembled, these and the 24 pilots many of whom were veterans of the Battle of Britain , who had been transferred to the theatre, formed the nucleus of five squadrons.
They arrived on 13 January , by which time the Allied fighter squadrons in Singapore, flying Brewster Buffalos , had been overwhelmed during the Malayan campaign.
The fighters of the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force , especially the Nakajima Ki Oscar, had been underestimated in its capability, numbers and the strategy of its commanders.
Thanks to the efforts of the st Maintenance unit, the 51 Hurricanes were assembled and ready for testing within 48 hours and of these, 21 were ready for operational service within three days.
The Hurricanes were fitted with bulky 'Vokes' dust filters under the nose and were armed with 12, rather than eight, machine guns.
The additional weight and drag made them slow to climb and unwieldy to manoeuvre at altitude, although they were more effective bomber killers.
The recently arrived pilots were formed into Squadron and NZ Squadron , flying Buffaloes, converted to Hurricanes.
On 18 January, the two squadrons formed the basis of Group ; Squadron became operational on 22 January and suffered the first losses and victories for the Hurricane in Southeast Asia.
Because of inadequate early warning systems the first British radar stations became operational only towards the end of February , Japanese air raids were able to destroy 30 Hurricanes on the ground in Sumatra, most of them in one raid on 7 February.
After Japanese landings in Singapore , on 10 February, the remnants of and Squadrons were withdrawn to Palembang. Japanese paratroopers began the invasion of Sumatra on 13 February.
Hurricanes destroyed six Japanese transport ships on 14 February but lost seven aircraft in the process. On 18 February, the remaining Allied aircraft and aircrews moved to Java , with only 18 serviceable Hurricanes out of the original With dust filters removed and fuel and ammo load in wings halved, these were able to stay in a turn with the Oscars they fought.
The battles over the Arakan in represented the last large-scale use of the Hurricane as a pure day fighter. But they were still used in the fighter-bomber role in Burma until the end of the war and they were occasionally caught up in air combat as well.
During the next three years, Fleet Air Arm Sea Hurricanes were to feature prominently while operating from Royal Navy aircraft carriers.
The Sea Hurricane scored an impressive kill-to-loss ratio,  [N 11] primarily while defending Malta convoys , and operating from escort carriers in the Atlantic Ocean.
For example, on 26 May , Royal Navy Sea Hurricanes operating from the escort carrier HMS Nairana claimed the destruction of three Ju reconnaissance aircraft during the defence of a convoy.
Due to its lightweight, yet robust, construction and ease of maintenance, the Hurricane had a long operational life in many theatres of war.
It was also built by, or exported to, several other countries. The Hurricane was unusual in that it was flown operationally by both the Allies and the Axis during the war.
In some cases e. In Latvia ordered and paid for 30 Hurricane fighters, but due to the start of the Second World War later that year, the aircraft were never delivered.
Of more than 14, Hurricanes that were built,  approximately seventeen including three Sea Hurricanes are in airworthy condition worldwide, although many other non-flying examples survive in various air museums.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Then, with tail trimmer set, throttle and mixture lever fully forward There was no sudden surge of acceleration, but with a thunderous roar from the exhausts just ahead on either side of the windscreen, only a steady increase in speed In retrospect that first Hurricane sortie was a moment of elation, but also of relief.