Die Scientology-Organisation geht auf den US-Amerikaner Lafayette Ronald ("L. Ron") HUBBARD () zurück, eine schillernde Persönlichkeit, um den. Das Kernstück von L. Ron Hubbards verwaltungstechnischen Entdeckungen ist die Organisierungstafel oder das “Org Board”, wie es allgemeiner bekannt ist. Das. Saint Hill war von 19das Zuhause von L. Ron Hubbard und der Ort, wo er forschte und sein wegweisendes Werk über Verstand und Geist formulierte.
L. Ron Hubbard Publikation zur Scientology-Organisation
Lafayette Ronald Hubbard war ein US-amerikanischer Science-Fiction-, Pulp-Magazin- und Selbsthilfe-Autor. gründete er Scientology. Lafayette Ronald Hubbard (* März in Tilden, Nebraska; † Januar in San Luis Obispo, Kalifornien) war ein US-amerikanischer Science-Fiction-. L. Ron Hubbard, Schriftsteller und Abenteurer, erforschte den Verstand und entdeckte Wissen und Wahrheiten, mit deren Hilfe man das Leben verbessern und. Alles in allem umfassen L. Ron Hubbards Werke über die Dianetics und Scientology die größte in sich geschlossene Aussage über den menschlichen Verstand. Die Scientology-Organisation geht auf den US-Amerikaner Lafayette Ronald ("L. Ron") HUBBARD () zurück, eine schillernde Persönlichkeit, um den. Das Kernstück von L. Ron Hubbards verwaltungstechnischen Entdeckungen ist die Organisierungstafel oder das “Org Board”, wie es allgemeiner bekannt ist. Das. Ron Hubbards Leben näher. [ image ]. Als L. Ron Hubbard noch in seinem Heim Saint Hill Manor lebte, wurden seine Vorträge.
L. Ron Hubbard, Schriftsteller und Abenteurer, erforschte den Verstand und entdeckte Wissen und Wahrheiten, mit deren Hilfe man das Leben verbessern und. Obwohl L. Ron Hubbard am besten durch Dianetics und Scientology bekannt ist, lässt er sich doch nicht so leicht einstufen. Nicht zuletzt war sein Leben zu. Ron Hubbards Leben näher. [ image ]. Als L. Ron Hubbard noch in seinem Heim Saint Hill Manor lebte, wurden seine Vorträge.
Moreover, those potentials were found to be possessed by every human being and just as universally attainable. All told, L.
So that all may avail themselves of these technologies, L. It is a practical religion. It is applicable to every aspect of human existence and it is religion for the here and now.
Hit enter to search or ESC to close. Related Sites. Ron Hubbard. What is Scientology? Hubbard starb am Ron Hubbard begann in Guam mit dem Verfassen von Kurzgeschichten.
Dezember fiel er durch die Aufnahmeprüfung zur Navy-Akademie. Im Sommer des gleichen Jahres musste er die Universität verlassen.
Campbell , kennen. Noch im gleichen Jahr wurde The Dangerous Dimension veröffentlicht. In den er Jahren versuchte er sich als Erfinder.
Unter anderem erfand er ein Gerät, das den Schmerz von Tomaten messen sollte, wenn man diese aufschneidet. Hier begann er sich für Religion und Magie zu interessieren, wie sie vom Ordo Templi Orientis verfolgt wurde.
Er trat diesem Orden jedoch nicht bei, sondern arbeitete mit Jack Parsons zusammen, einem Briefschüler des Okkultisten Aleister Crowley.
Hubbard glaubte, dass Parsons, nachdem er den Diebstahl entdeckt hatte, einen Dämon beschwor, der das Schiff zum Kentern brachte. Hubbard beklagte die schlechte Bezahlung für seine literarischen Arbeiten, worauf Lester del Rey halb im Scherz vorgeschlagen habe, er solle doch eine Religionsgemeinschaft gründen, weil diese steuerbefreit sei.
Hubbard entwickelte u. Laut Hubbard können dadurch körperliche Symptome wie Gähnen oder Schwindel bewirkt werden, oder auch, dass ein Student sein Studium aufgibt.
Sie wird in Scientology-Gemeinden und einigen von Scientologen geführten Privatschulen angewendet, teils auch von nicht organisierten Lesern der Bücher.
In fact, he accidentally started firing at Mexican Navy vessels in and nearly started a major disaster all by himself. During his time in the military, Hubbard kept a diary.
He famously suffered from a lack of self-esteem, so would write strange messages to himself in order to try and raise his confidence levels.
Many of his writings were related to his prowess in bed. Sara Northrup Hubbard, 2nd wife of L. A chance meeting with a man named Jack Parsons led to Hubbard and his new friend performing a bizarre ritual.
Their ultimate aim was to summon a goddess who could give birth to the Antichrist. He created a device called the E-meter, which is allegedly able to determine the enlightenment level of any individual.
If they get the right readings, the individuals are able to proceed to the next level of Scientology. If not, they usually have to pay up for more teachings and practice.
Hubbard was laughed out of England after once using his E-meter on a tomato and suggesting that it could feel pain while being eaten, and he was starting to get a bad reputation in many other countries too.Saint Hill war von 19das Zuhause von L. Ron Hubbard und der Ort, wo er forschte und sein wegweisendes Werk über Verstand und Geist formulierte. L. Ron Hubbard, der Gründer von Dianetik und Scientology, ist eine der bekanntesten Persönlichkeiten der Neuzeit. In einem Schriftstellerleben, das mehr als. Obwohl L. Ron Hubbard am besten durch Dianetics und Scientology bekannt ist, lässt er sich doch nicht so leicht einstufen. Nicht zuletzt war sein Leben zu.
L. Ron Hubbard FOUNDER OF DIANETICS AND SCIENTOLOGY VideoL. Ron Hubbard - What Is Greatness? Their Françoise Yip was by now in terminal difficulties and he chose to stay in California. Selon une biographie de J. She was already pregnant when they married, but had a miscarriage shortly afterwards; a few months later, she became pregnant again. Hubbard conducting a Dianetics seminar in Los Angeles, Hubbard says "No". Ron Prominent Deutsch exposed. No page number given. Main article: Sea Org. Finally, at the end ofHubbard acquired his own fleet of ships. Scientology A History of a New Religion.
L. Ron Hubbard Das Vermächtnis des Gründers der Scientology fortführen und erhaltenAls L. Mit diesem Ehrenstatus wurde eine ganz besondere goldene Anstecknadel mit Nickelodeon Live Stream Deutsch Diamanten in der Mitte und einer Karte, die seine Wichtigkeit vermerkt, überreicht. Ron Hubbards Werken sind im Umlauf. Für weitere Informationen über die I Tunes Chip personenbezogener Daten lesen Sie bitte unsere Datenschutzerklärung. Sie können auch unsere Datenschutzerklärung lesen, um detailliertere Informationen zu erhalten. Genauer gesagt analysierte Hubbard die verschiedenen Überlebensgrade — angefangen bei einem Zustand von Nicht-Existenz, hin zu einer gefährlichen Situation, hin zu einem Zustand von Notlage, hin zu normalem Arbeiten, Überfluss und Macht. We want one in operation but not in name. Quoted by Miller, pp. Obviously, he is and has been a very complex person and that complexity is further Bruce Allmächtig 2 in his alter ego, the Church of Scientology. Ert Tv Live or painful experiences Blue Mountain State Movie German stored as what he called "engrams" in a " reactive mind ". August 14, " Dianetics : book review by Martin Gumpert. Tatsache ist, wenn man irgendetwas vollbringen will, muss man diese sieben Schritte durchführen. Flipper Und Lopaka formulierte es so:. Ron Hubbard über Pläne geschrieben hatte, Netflix Serien 2019 Liste Lebenskraft weiter zu erforschen, stellte er bald fest, dass er sich häufende Beweise dafür untersuchte, dass diese Lebenskraft im Grunde geistiger Natur ist und sich weit über ein einzelnes Leben hinaus erstreckt. Abertausende von Seiten Diese Materialien über das Gebiet des menschlichen Geistes, die die Philosophie der Dianetik und Scientology umfassen, sind heute auf Abertausenden von Seiten festgehalten. Dort suchte Ron nach weiteren Möglichkeiten, um Dianetik und Scientology noch Horror Clown zugänglich zu machen; er schrieb für Serien Stream Two And Half Men Fachgebiete Die Bauretter Wer Bezahlt Das von Drehbüchern für Ausbildungsfilme, mit denen die exakte Anwendung der technischen Prinzipien visuell dargestellt werden sollte. Insgesamt verbrachte Hubbard mehr als drei Jahrzehnte mit der Kino Ulm und Systematisierung der verwaltungstechnischen Richtlinien, nach denen Scientology Organisationen arbeiten. Name Step Up 3 Deutsch Ganzer Film Last.
Although he was best known for his fantasy and science fiction stories, Hubbard wrote in a wide variety of genres, including adventure fiction, aviation, travel, mysteries, westerns and even romance.
Heinlein , L. Sprague de Camp and A. In the spring of they moved to Bremerton, Washington. They lived there for a time with Hubbard's aunts and grandmother before finding a place of their own at nearby South Colby.
According to one of his friends at the time, Robert MacDonald Ford , the Hubbards were "in fairly dire straits for money" but sustained themselves on the income from Hubbard's writing.
His first full-length novel, Buckskin Brigades , was published in Campbell ,  who published many of Hubbard's short stories and also serialized a number of well-received novelettes that Hubbard wrote for Campbell's magazines Unknown and Astounding Science Fiction.
Hubbard spent an increasing amount of time in New York City ,  working out of a hotel room where his wife suspected him of carrying on affairs with other women.
In April , Hubbard reportedly underwent a dental procedure and reacted to the drug used in the procedure. According to his account, this triggered a revelatory near-death experience.
Allegedly inspired by this experience, Hubbard composed a manuscript, which was never published, with working titles of The One Command or Excalibur.
Arthur J. Burks , who read the work in , later recalled it discussed the "one command": to survive. This theme would be revisited in Dianetics.
Burks also recalled the work discussing the psychology of a lynch mob. According to Burks, Hubbard believed that Excalibur would "revolutionize everything" and that "it was somewhat more important, and would have a greater impact upon people, than the Bible.
Hubbard's failure to sell Excalibur depressed him; he told his wife in an October letter: "Writing action pulp doesn't have much agreement with what I want to do because it retards my progress by demanding incessant attention and, further, actually weakens my name.
So you see I've got to do something about it and at the same time strengthen the old financial position. Sooner or later Excalibur will be published and I may have a chance to get some name recognition out of it so as to pave the way to articles and comments which are my ideas of writing heaven Foolishly perhaps, but determined none the less, I have high hopes of smashing my name into history so violently that it will take a legendary form even if all books are destroyed.
That goal is the real goal as far as I am concerned. Forrest J Ackerman , later Hubbard's literary agent , recalled that Hubbard told him "whoever read it either went insane or committed suicide.
And he said that the last time he had shown it to a publisher in New York, he walked into the office to find out what the reaction was, the publisher called for the reader, the reader came in with the manuscript, threw it on the table and threw himself out of the skyscraper window.
Hubbard realized that, while he was dead, he had received a tremendous inspiration, a great Message which he must impart to others. He sat at his typewriter for six days and nights and nothing came out.
Then, Excalibur emerged. The manuscript later became part of Scientology mythology. It warned that "four of the first fifteen people who read it went insane" and that it would be "[r]eleased only on sworn statement not to permit other readers to read it.
Contains data not to be released during Mr. Hubbard's stay on earth. Hubbard joined The Explorers Club in February on the strength of his claimed explorations in the Caribbean and survey flights in the United States.
The trip was plagued by problems and did not get any further than Ketchikan. Having underestimated the cost of the trip, he did not have enough money to repair the broken engine.
He raised money by writing stories and contributing to the local radio station  and eventually earned enough to fix the engine,  making it back to Puget Sound on December 27, His friend Robert MacDonald Ford , by now a State Representative for Washington, sent a letter of recommendation describing Hubbard as "one of the most brilliant men I have ever known".
I just gave him a letter-head and said, 'Hell, you're the writer, you write it! By November, he was posted to New York for training as an intelligence officer.
The U. He is garrulous and tries to give impressions of his importance. He also seems to think he has unusual ability in most lines. These characteristics indicate that he will require close supervision for satisfactory performance of any intelligence duty.
Only five hours into the voyage, Hubbard believed he had detected an enemy submarine. Hubbard spent the next 68 hours engaged in combat, until finally receiving orders to return to Astoria.
Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher , commander of the Northwest Sea Frontier , concluded: "An analysis of all reports convinces me that there was no submarine in the area.
The following month, Hubbard unwittingly sailed PC into Mexican territorial waters and conducted gunnery practice off the Coronado Islands , in the belief that they were uninhabited and belonged to the United States.
The Mexican government complained and Hubbard was relieved of command. A report written after the incident rated Hubbard as unsuitable for independent duties and "lacking in the essential qualities of judgment, leadership and cooperation".
After being relieved of command of PC , Hubbard began reporting sick, citing a variety of ailments, including ulcers, malaria, and back pains.
Hubbard was admitted to the San Diego naval hospital for observation—he would remain there for nearly three months. You are free of the Navy.
The ship was commissioned in July and Hubbard served as the navigation and training officer. Hubbard requested, and was granted, a transfer to the School of Military Government in Princeton.
The night before his departure, the ship's log reports that "The Navigating Officer [Hubbard] reported to the OOD [Officer On Duty] that an attempt at sabatage [sic] had been made sometime between — It was discovered before being taken on board.
Hubbard's life underwent a turbulent period immediately after the war. According to his own account, he "was abandoned by family and friends as a supposedly hopeless cripple and a probable burden upon them for the rest of my days".
Their marriage was by now in terminal difficulties and he chose to stay in California. A leading rocket propulsion researcher at the California Institute of Technology and a founder of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory , Parsons led a double life as an avid occultist and Thelemite , follower of the English ceremonial magician Aleister Crowley and leader of a lodge of Crowley's magical order , Ordo Templi Orientis OTO.
Hubbard befriended Parsons and soon became sexually involved with Parsons's year-old girlfriend, Sara "Betty" Northrup. He moved in with me about two months ago, and although Betty and I are still friendly, she has transferred her sexual affection to Ron.
Although he has no formal training in Magick, he has an extraordinary amount of experience and understanding in the field.
From some of his experiences I deduced that he is in direct touch with some higher intelligence, possibly his Guardian Angel.
He describes his Angel as a beautiful winged woman with red hair whom he calls the Empress and who has guided him through his life and saved him many times.
He is the most Thelemic person I have ever met and is in complete accord with our own principles. The two men collaborated on the " Babalon Working ", a sex magic ritual intended to summon an incarnation of Babalon , the supreme Thelemite Goddess.
It was undertaken over several nights in February and March in order to summon an "elemental" who would participate in further sex magic.
Parsons used his "magical wand" to whip up a vortex of energy so the elemental would be summoned. Translated into plain English, Parsons jerked off in the name of spiritual advancement whilst Hubbard referred to as "The Scribe" in the diary of the event scanned the astral plane for signs and visions.
The "elemental" arrived a few days later in the form of Marjorie Cameron , who agreed to participate in Parsons's rites.
The plan was for Hubbard and Sara to buy yachts in Miami and sail them to the West Coast to sell for a profit.
Hubbard had a different idea; he wrote to the U. A week later, Allied Enterprises was dissolved. He had to sell his mansion to developers soon afterwards to recoup his losses.
Hubbard's fellow writers were well aware of what had happened between him and Parsons. Sprague de Camp wrote to Isaac Asimov on August 27, , to tell him:.
The more complete story of Hubbard is that he is now in Fla. He will probably soon thereafter arrive in these parts with Betty-Sarah, broke, working the poor-wounded-veteran racket for all its worth, and looking for another easy mark.
Don't say you haven't been warned. Bob [ Robert Heinlein ] thinks Ron went to pieces morally as a result of the war.
I think that's fertilizer, that he always was that way, but when he wanted to conciliate or get something from somebody he could put on a good charm act.
What the war did was to wear him down to where he no longer bothers with the act. On August 10, , Hubbard bigamously married Sara, while still married to Polly.
It was not until that his first wife learned that he had remarried. Hubbard agreed to divorce Polly in June that year and the marriage was dissolved shortly afterwards, with Polly given custody of the children.
During this period, Hubbard authored a document which has called the " Affirmations " also referred to as the "Admissions". They consist of a series of statements by and addressed to Hubbard, relating to various physical, sexual, psychological and social issues that he was encountering in his life.
The Affirmations appear to have been intended to be used as a form of self-hypnosis with the intention of resolving the author's psychological problems and instilling a positive mental attitude.
In her book , Reitman called the Affirmations "the most revealing psychological self-assessment, complete with exhortations to himself, that [Hubbard] had ever made.
After trying and failing for two years to regain my equilibrium in civil life, I am utterly unable to approach anything like my own competence.
My last physician informed me that it might be very helpful if I were to be examined and perhaps treated psychiatrically or even by a psychoanalyst.
Toward the end of my service I avoided out of pride any mental examinations, hoping that time would balance a mind which I had every reason to suppose was seriously affected.
I cannot account for nor rise above long periods of moroseness and suicidal inclinations, and have newly come to realize that I must first triumph above this before I can hope to rehabilitate myself at all.
I cannot, myself, afford such treatment. Would you please help me? The VA eventually did increase his pension,  but his money problems continued.
In , Hubbard and his second wife Sara moved from California to Savannah, Georgia, where he would later claim to have worked as a volunteer lay practitioner in a local psychiatric clinic.
In letters to friends, he began to make the first public mentions of what was to become Dianetics. He wrote in January that he was working on a "book of psychology" about "the cause and cure of nervous tension", which he was going to call The Dark Sword , Excalibur or Science of the Mind.
Hubbard referenced Heinlein's earlier work Coventry , in which a utopian government has the ability to psychologically "cure" criminals of violent personality traits.
He told Heinlein:. Well, you didn't specify in your book what actual reformation took place in the society to make supermen. Got to thinking about it other day.
The system is Excalibur. It makes nul A's. In April , Hubbard wrote to several professional organizations to offer his research.
Campbell, who was more receptive due to a long-standing fascination with fringe psychologies and psychic powers " psionics " that "permeated both his fiction and non-fiction".
In July , Campbell recruited an acquaintance, Dr. Joseph Winter, to help develop Hubbard's new therapy of "Dianetics".
Campbell told Winter:. With cooperation from some institutions, some psychiatrists, [Hubbard] has worked on all types of cases. Institutionalized schizophrenics, apathies, manics, depressives, perverts, stuttering, neuroses—in all, nearly cases.
But just a brief sampling of each type; he doesn't have proper statistics in the usual sense. But he has one statistic.
He has cured every patient he worked with. He has cured ulcers, arthritis, asthma. Hubbard collaborated with Campbell and Winter to refine his techniques,  testing them on science fiction fans recruited by Campbell.
Bad or painful experiences were stored as what he called "engrams" in a " reactive mind ". These could be triggered later in life, causing emotional and physical problems.
By carrying out a process he called "auditing" , a person could be regressed through his engrams to re-experiencing past experiences.
This enabled engrams to be "cleared". The subject, who would now be in a state of "Clear" , would have a perfectly functioning mind with an improved IQ and photographic memory.
Winter submitted a paper on Dianetics to the Journal of the American Medical Association and the American Journal of Psychiatry but both journals rejected it.
In an editorial, Campbell said: "Its power is almost unbelievable; it proves the mind not only can but does rule the body completely; following the sharply defined basic laws set forth, physical ills such as ulcers, asthma and arthritis can be cured, as can all other psychosomatic ills.
Hubbard described Dianetics as "the hidden source of all psychosomatic ills and human aberration" when he introduced Dianetics to the world in the s.
He further claimed that "skills have been developed for their invariable cure. Hubbard abandoned freelance writing in order to promote Dianetics, writing several books about it in the next decade and delivering an estimated 4, lectures while founding Dianetics research organizations.
Dianetics was an immediate commercial success and sparked what Martin Gardner calls "a nationwide cult of incredible proportions". Five hundred Dianetic auditing groups had been set up across the United States.
Dianetics was poorly received by the press and the scientific and medical professions. Several famous individuals became involved with Dianetics.
Aldous Huxley received auditing from Hubbard;  the poet Jean Toomer  and the science fiction writers Theodore Sturgeon  and A.
Van Vogt temporarily abandoned writing and became the head of the newly established Los Angeles branch of the Hubbard Dianetic Research Foundation.
Other branches were established in New York, Washington, D. Hubbard himself took large sums with no explanation of what he was doing with it.
Hubbard played a very active role in the Dianetics boom, writing, lecturing and training auditors. Many of those who knew him spoke of being impressed by his personal charisma.
Jack Horner, who became a Dianetics auditor in , later said, "He was very impressive, dedicated and amusing. The man had tremendous charisma; you just wanted to hear every word he had to say and listen for any pearl of wisdom.
Sprague de Camp and their wives "all sat as quietly as pussycats and listened to Hubbard. He told tales with perfect aplomb and in complete paragraphs.
He undoubtedly has charisma, a magnetic lure of an indefinable kind which makes him the centre of attraction in any kind of gathering.
He is also a compulsive talker and pontificator His restless energy keeps him on the go throughout a long day—he is a poor sleeper and rises very early—and provides part of the drive which has allowed him to found and propagate a major international organization.
Dianetics lost public credibility in August when a presentation by Hubbard before an audience of 6, at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles failed disastrously.
However, Gardner writes, "in the demonstration that followed, she failed to remember a single formula in physics the subject in which she was majoring or the color of Hubbard's tie when his back was turned.
At this point, a large part of the audience got up and left. Hubbard's supporters soon began to have doubts about Dianetics. Winter became disillusioned, and in , he wrote that he had never seen a single convincing Clear: "I have seen some individuals who are supposed to have been 'clear,' but their behavior does not conform to the definition of the state.
Moreover, an individual supposed to have been 'clear' has undergone a relapse into conduct which suggests an incipient psychosis.
Hubbard also faced other practitioners moving into leadership positions within the Dianetics community.
It was structured as an open, public practice in which others were free to pursue their own lines of research and claim that their approaches to auditing produced better results than Hubbard's.
By late , the Elizabeth, N. Foundation and all of its branches had closed. The collapse of Hubbard's marriage to Sara created yet more problems. He had begun an affair with his year-old public relations assistant in late , while Sara started a relationship with Dianetics auditor Miles Hollister.
According to Hubbard, Sara was "currently intimate with [communists] but evidently under coercion. Drug addiction set in fall Nothing of this known to me until a few weeks ago.
He was said to be the "center of most turbulence in our organization" and "active and dangerous". Three weeks later, Hubbard and two Foundation staff seized Sara and his year-old daughter Alexis and forcibly took them to San Bernardino, California , where he attempted unsuccessfully to find a doctor to examine Sara and declare her insane.
Sara filed a divorce suit on April 23, , that accused him of marrying her bigamously and subjecting her to sleep deprivation , beatings, strangulation , kidnapping and exhortations to commit suicide.
The things I have said about L. Ron Hubbard in courts and the public prints have been grossly exaggerated or entirely false.
I have not at any time believed otherwise than that L. Ron Hubbard is a fine and brilliant man. Dianetics appeared to be on the edge of total collapse.
However, it was saved by Don Purcell, a millionaire businessman and Dianeticist who agreed to support a new Foundation in Wichita, Kansas.
Their collaboration ended after less than a year when they fell out over the future direction of Dianetics.
The ruling prompted Purcell and the other directors of the Wichita Foundation to file for voluntary bankruptcy in February Only six weeks after setting up the Hubbard College and marrying a staff member, year-old Mary Sue Whipp , Hubbard closed it down and moved with his new bride to Phoenix, Arizona.
The Church of Scientology attributes its genesis to Hubbard's discovery of "a new line of research"—"that man is most fundamentally a spiritual being a thetan ".
Hubbard was complaining of not being able to make a living on what he was being paid as a science fiction writer. Ellison says that Lester del Rey told Hubbard that what he needed to do to get rich was start a religion.
Hubbard expanded upon the basics of Dianetics to construct a spiritually oriented though at this stage not religious doctrine based on the concept that the true self of a person was a thetan—an immortal, omniscient and potentially omnipotent entity.
In , Ohio State University professor Hugh Urban  asserted that Hubbard had adopted many of his theories from the early to mid 20th century astral projection pioneer Sylvan Muldoon stating that Hubbard's description of exteriorizing the thetan is extremely similar if not identical to the descriptions of astral projection in occult literature popularized by Muldoon's widely read Phenomena of Astral Projection co-written with Hereward Carrington  and that Muldoon's description of the astral body as being connected to the physical body by a long thin, elastic cord is virtually identical to the one described in Hubbard's "Excalibur" vision.
Hubbard introduced a device called an E-meter that he presented as having, as Miller puts it, "an almost mystical power to reveal an individual's innermost thoughts".
Scientology was organized in a very different way from the decentralized Dianetics movement. Training procedures and doctrines were standardized and promoted through HAS publications, and administrators and auditors were not permitted to deviate from Hubbard's approach.
Each franchise holder was required to pay ten percent of income to Hubbard's central organization. They were expected to find new recruits, known as "raw meat", but were restricted to providing only basic services.
Costlier higher-level auditing was only provided by Hubbard's central organization. Although this model would eventually be extremely successful, Scientology was a very small-scale movement at first.
Hubbard started off with only a few dozen followers, generally dedicated Dianeticists; a seventy-hour series of lectures in Philadelphia in December was attended by just 38 people.
It was very much a shoestring operation; as Helen O'Brien later recalled, "there was an atmosphere of extreme poverty and undertones of a grim conspiracy over all.
At Holland Park Avenue was an ill-lit lecture room and a bare-boarded and poky office some eight by ten feet—mainly infested by long haired men and short haired and tatty women.
In February , Hubbard acquired a doctorate from the unaccredited degree mill called Sequoia University. As membership declined and finances grew tighter, Hubbard had reversed the hostility to religion he voiced in Dianetics.
We don't want a clinic. We want one in operation but not in name. Perhaps we could call it a Spiritual Guidance Center.
Think up its name, will you. And we could put in nice desks and our boys in neat blue with diplomas on the walls and 1.
It is a problem of practical business. I await your reaction on the religion angle. In my opinion, we couldn't get worse public opinion than we have had or have less customers with what we've got to sell.
The letter's recipient, Helen O'Brien, resigned the following September. The idea may not have been new; Hubbard has been quoted as telling a science fiction convention in "Writing for a penny a word is ridiculous.
If a man really wants to make a million dollars, the best way would be to start his own religion. Gordon Melton notes, "There is no record of Hubbard having ever made this statement, though several of his science fiction colleagues have noted the broaching of the subject on one of their informal conversations.
Scientology franchises became Churches of Scientology and some auditors began dressing as clergymen, complete with clerical collars.
If they were arrested in the course of their activities, Hubbard advised, they should sue for massive damages for molesting "a Man of God going about his business".
Don't ever defend, always attack. The purpose of the suit is to harass and discourage rather than to win. The law can be used very easily to harass, and enough harassment on somebody who is simply on the thin edge anyway, well knowing that he is not authorized, will generally be sufficient to cause his professional decease.
If possible, of course, ruin him utterly. The s saw Scientology growing steadily. Hubbard finally achieved victory over Don Purcell in when the latter, worn out by constant litigation, handed the copyrights of Dianetics back to Hubbard.
Plagued by illness? We'll make you able to have good health. Get processed by the finest capable auditors in the world today Personally coached and monitored by L.
Ron Hubbard. Scientology became a highly profitable enterprise for Hubbard. The house became Hubbard's permanent residence and an international training center for Scientologists.
By the start of the s, Hubbard was the leader of a worldwide movement with thousands of followers. A decade later, however, he had left Saint Hill Manor and moved aboard his own private fleet of ships as the Church of Scientology faced worldwide controversy.
They have sought at great expense for nineteen years to crush and eradicate any new development in the field of the mind. They are actively preventing any effectiveness in this field.
Hubbard believed that Scientology was being infiltrated by saboteurs and spies and introduced " security checking "  to identify those he termed "potential trouble sources" and " suppressive persons ".
Members of the Church of Scientology were interrogated with the aid of E-meters and were asked questions such as "Have you ever practiced homosexuality?
Ron Hubbard? He also sought to exert political influence, advising Scientologists to vote against Richard Nixon in the presidential election and establishing a Department of Government Affairs "to bring government and hostile philosophies or societies into a state of complete compliance with the goals of Scientology".
This, he said, "is done by high-level ability to control and in its absence by a low-level ability to overwhelm.
Introvert such agencies. Control such agencies. Government was already well aware of Hubbard's activities.
The FBI had a lengthy file on him, including a interview with an agent who considered him a "mental case". Internal Revenue Service withdrew the Washington, D.
Church of Scientology's tax exemption after it found that Hubbard and his family were profiting unreasonably from Scientology's ostensibly non-profit income.
The Church of Scientology was required to label them as being "ineffective in the diagnosis or treatment of disease". Following the FDA's actions, Scientology attracted increasingly unfavorable publicity across the English-speaking world.
He was described as being of doubtful sanity, having a persecution complex and displaying strong indications of paranoid schizophrenia with delusions of grandeur.
His writings were characterized as nonsensical, abounding in "self-glorification and grandiosity, replete with histrionics and hysterical, incontinent outbursts".
The former conception of the movement as a relatively harmless, if cranky, health and self-improvement cult, was transformed into one which portrayed it as evil, dangerous, a form of hypnosis with all the overtones of Svengali in the layman's mind , and brainwashing.
The report led to Scientology being banned in Victoria,  Western Australia and South Australia ,  and led to more negative publicity around the world.
Newspapers and politicians in the UK pressed the British government for action against Scientology. In April , hoping to form a remote "safe haven" for Scientology, Hubbard traveled to the southern African country Rhodesia today Zimbabwe and looked into setting up a base there at a hotel on Lake Kariba.
Despite his attempts to curry favour with the local government—he personally delivered champagne to Prime Minister Ian Smith 's house, but Smith refused to see him—Rhodesia promptly refused to renew Hubbard's visa, compelling him to leave the country.
Hubbard took three major new initiatives in the face of these challenges. It required Scientologists to " disconnect " from any organization or individual—including family members—deemed to be disruptive or "suppressive".
If one has the right to communicate, then one must also have the right to not receive communication from another. It is this latter corollary of the right to communicate that gives us our right to privacy.
Hubbard promulgated a long list of punishable "Misdemeanors", "Crimes", and "High Crimes". May be tricked, sued or lied to or destroyed.
Finally, at the end of , Hubbard acquired his own fleet of ships. After Hubbard created the Sea Org "fleet" in early it began an eight-year voyage, sailing from port to port in the Mediterranean Sea and eastern North Atlantic.
The fleet traveled as far as Corfu in the eastern Mediterranean and Dakar and the Azores in the Atlantic, but rarely stayed anywhere for longer than six weeks.
Ken Urquhart, Hubbard's personal assistant at the time, later recalled:. If they caught up with him they would cause him so much trouble that he would be unable to continue his work, Scientology would not get into the world and there would be social and economic chaos, if not a nuclear holocaust.
When Hubbard established the Sea Org he publicly declared that he had relinquished his management responsibilities.
According to Miller, this was not true. He received daily telex messages from Scientology organizations around the world reporting their statistics and income.
Along the way, Hubbard sought to establish a safe haven in "a friendly little country where Scientology would be allowed to prosper", as Miller puts it.
Hubbard renamed the ships after Greek gods—the Royal Scotman was rechristened Apollo —and he praised the recently established military dictatorship.
At the same time, Hubbard was still developing Scientology's doctrines. A Scientology biography states that "free of organizational duties and aided by the first Sea Org members, L.
Ron Hubbard now had the time and facilities to confirm in the physical universe some of the events and places he had encountered in his journeys down the track of time.
Scientologists around the world were presented with a glamorous picture of life in the Sea Org and many applied to join Hubbard aboard the fleet.
Most of those joining had no nautical experience at all. Following one incident in which the rudder of the Royal Scotman was damaged during a storm, Hubbard ordered the ship's entire crew to be reduced to a "condition of liability" and wear gray rags tied to their arms.
According to those aboard, conditions were appalling; the crew was worked to the point of exhaustion, given meagre rations and forbidden to wash or change their clothes for several weeks.
We tried not to think too hard about his behavior. It was not rational much of the time, but to even consider such a thing was a discreditable thought and you couldn't allow yourself to have a discreditable thought.
One of the questions in a sec[urity] check was, "Have you ever had any unkind thoughts about LRH?
So you tried hard not to. They were mainly young girls dressed in hot pants and halter tops , who were responsible for running errands for Hubbard such as lighting his cigarettes, dressing him or relaying his verbal commands to other members of the crew.
During the s, Hubbard faced an increasing number of legal threats. French prosecutors charged him and the French Church of Scientology with fraud and customs violations in He was advised that he was at risk of being extradited to France.
Hubbard's health deteriorated significantly during this period. A chain-smoker , he also suffered from bursitis and excessive weight, and had a prominent growth on his forehead.
He remained active in managing and developing Scientology, establishing the controversial Rehabilitation Project Force in  and issuing policy and doctrinal bulletins.
At the time, The Apollo Stars , a musical group founded by Hubbard and made up entirely of ship-bound members of the Sea Org, was offering free on-pier concerts in an attempt to promote Scientology, and the riot occurred at one of these events.
Hubbard decided to relocate back to the United States to establish a "land base" for the Sea Org in Florida.
In October , Hubbard moved into a hotel suite in Daytona Beach. The Fort Harrison Hotel in Clearwater, Florida , was secretly acquired as the location for the "land base".
He lived there for only about three months, relocating in October to the more private confines of the Olive Tree Ranch near La Quinta. He believed that Scientology was being attacked by an international Nazi conspiracy, which he termed the "Tenyaka Memorial", through a network of drug companies, banks and psychiatrists in a bid to take over the world.
The GO carried out covert campaigns on his behalf such as Operation Bulldozer Leak , intended "to effectively spread the rumor that will lead Government, media, and individual [ Suppressive Persons ] to conclude that LRH has no control of the C of S and no legal liability for Church activity".
He was kept informed of GO operations, such as the theft of medical records from a hospital, harassment of psychiatrists and infiltrations of organizations that had been critical of Scientology at various times, such as the Better Business Bureau , the American Medical Association , and American Psychiatric Association.
Members of the GO infiltrated and burglarized numerous government organizations, including the U. Department of Justice and the Internal Revenue Service.
They retrieved wiretap equipment, burglary tools and some 90, pages of incriminating documents. Hubbard was not prosecuted, though he was labeled an " unindicted co-conspirator " by government prosecutors.
His wife Mary Sue was indicted and subsequently convicted of conspiracy. She was sent to a federal prison along with ten other Scientologists.
Hubbard's troubles increased in February when a French court convicted him in absentia for obtaining money under false pretenses.
He cut contact with everyone else, even his wife, whom he saw for the last time in August For the first few years of the s, Hubbard and the Broekers lived on the move, touring the Pacific Northwest in a recreational vehicle and living for a while in apartments in Newport Beach and Los Angeles.
The book soundtrack Space Jazz was released in In Hubbard's absence, members of the Sea Org staged a takeover of the Church of Scientology and purged many veteran Scientologists.
A young messenger, David Miscavige , became Scientology's de facto leader. Mary Sue Hubbard was forced to resign her position and her daughter Suzette became Miscavige's personal maid.
For the last two years of his life, Hubbard lived in a luxury Blue Bird motorhome on Whispering Winds, a acre ranch near Creston, California. He remained in deep hiding while controversy raged in the outside world about whether he was still alive and, if so, where.
He spent his time "writing and researching", according to a spokesperson, and pursued photography and music, overseeing construction work and checking on his animals.
Hubbard suffered further ill-health, including chronic pancreatitis , during his residence at Whispering Winds. He suffered a stroke on January 17, , and died a week later.
Hubbard was survived by his wife Mary Sue and all of his children except his second son Quentin. His will provided a trust fund to support Mary Sue; her children Arthur, Diana and Suzette; and Katherine, the daughter of his first wife Polly.
Ron Hubbard, Jr. She was rebuffed with the implied claim that her real father was Jack Parsons rather than Hubbard, and that her mother had been a Nazi spy during the war.
Hubbard's great-grandson, Jamie DeWolf , is a noted slam poet. The copyrights of his works and much of his estate and wealth were willed to the Church of Scientology.
They are buried at the Trementina Base in a vault under a mountain near Trementina, New Mexico , on top of which the CST's logo has been bulldozed on such a gigantic scale that it is visible from space.
Hubbard is the Guinness World Record holder for the most published author, with 1, works,  most translated book 70 languages for The Way to Happiness  and most audiobooks as of April Scientologists have written of their desire to "make Ron the most acclaimed and widely known author of all time".
Posthumously, the Los Angeles City Council named a part of the street close to the headquarters of Scientology in , as recognition of Hubbard.
Ron Hubbard Centennial Day. In , eighteen years after Hubbard's death, the Church claimed eight million followers worldwide.
According to religious scholar J. Gordon Melton , this is an overestimate, counting as Scientologists people who had merely bought a book. Every Church of Scientology maintains an office reserved for Hubbard, with a desk, chair and writing equipment, ready to be used.
Kliever notes that Hubbard was "the only source of the religion, and he has no successor". Hubbard is referred to simply as "Source" within Scientology and the theological acceptability of any Scientology-related activity is determined by how closely it adheres to Hubbard's doctrines.
The RTC is the central organization within Scientology's complex corporate hierarchy and has put much effort into re-checking the accuracy of all Scientology publications to "ensur[e] the availability of the pure unadulterated writings of Mr.
Hubbard to the coming generations". The Danish historian of religions Mikael Rothstein describes Scientology as "a movement focused on the figure of Hubbard".
He comments: "The fact that [Hubbard's] life is mythologized is as obvious as in the cases of Jesus , Muhammad or Siddartha Gotama.
This is how religion works. Scientology, however, rejects this analysis altogether, and goes to great lengths to defend every detail of Hubbard's amazing and fantastic life as plain historical fact.
According to Rothstein's assessment of Hubbard's legacy, Scientology consciously aims to transfer the charismatic authority of Hubbard to institutionalize his authority over the organization, even after his death.
Hubbard is presented as a virtually superhuman religious ideal just as Scientology itself is presented as the most important development in human history.
Bromley of the University of Virginia comments that the real Hubbard has been transformed into a "prophetic persona", "LRH", which acts as the basis for his prophetic authority within Scientology and transcends his biographical history.
Hubbard is viewed as having made Eastern traditions more accessible by approaching them with a scientific attitude. Hubbard, although increasingly deified after his death, is the model Operating Thetan to Scientologists and their founder, and not God.
Hubbard then is the "Source", "inviting others to follow his path in ways comparable to a Bodhisattva figure" according to religious scholar Donald A.
Scientologists refer to L. In fact, he accidentally started firing at Mexican Navy vessels in and nearly started a major disaster all by himself.
During his time in the military, Hubbard kept a diary. He famously suffered from a lack of self-esteem, so would write strange messages to himself in order to try and raise his confidence levels.
Many of his writings were related to his prowess in bed. Sara Northrup Hubbard, 2nd wife of L. A chance meeting with a man named Jack Parsons led to Hubbard and his new friend performing a bizarre ritual.
Their ultimate aim was to summon a goddess who could give birth to the Antichrist. He created a device called the E-meter, which is allegedly able to determine the enlightenment level of any individual.
If they get the right readings, the individuals are able to proceed to the next level of Scientology.
If not, they usually have to pay up for more teachings and practice. Hubbard was laughed out of England after once using his E-meter on a tomato and suggesting that it could feel pain while being eaten, and he was starting to get a bad reputation in many other countries too.
So, in , he bought several ships and made his own fleet called the Sea Org, designed for hardcore Scientologists only.
In spite of his many strange attributes, scandals and controversies, Hubbard can at least go down in history for his prolific writing ability.
Hubbard conducting a Dianetics seminar in Los Angeles, He actually holds the Guinness World Record for the most published works by one author, with over 1, books and stories in total, as well as being the most translated author for the same book.
He sold a lot of books, but their actual influence and effect on the world is seen as negative by many, with even Charles Manson allegedly coming up with ideas for his own cult after reading Dianetics.
Apr 26, Katie Vernon.